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Why do athletes get a heart attack and cardiac arrest? I know many players who have died of cardiac

Why do athletes get a heart attack and cardiac arrest? I know many players who have died of cardiac

One of the reasons and the most common one is condition called Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Caused due to some genetic mutations in muscles of heart, which may be familial or sporadic, in this condition there is asymmetrical enlargement of the wall separating the two ventricular chambers of the heart. This leads to decrease in blood exiting the heart especially when doing strenous physical activity leading to decreased blood flow to heart and other vital organs. Reference: Suraj Duche, Doctor

What is portal hypertension?

What is portal hypertension?

There is portal hypertension when there is increased pressure inside the portal vein, the vein that carries blood from the organs involved in the digestive process to the liver. Reference: Milan Popovic, Graduated pharmacist(Quora)

How do electrophysiologists treat abnormal heart rhythms?

How do electrophysiologists treat abnormal heart rhythms?

The first way to try to control an abnormal rhythm is pharmacological, using a series of agents. Examples: beta blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Sodium channel blockers, Potassium channel blockers, and other agents such as digoxin. The second way is cardioversion - shocking the heart to see if a normal rhythm is established. If these don’t work, the heart is mapped electrophysiologically to pinpoint the lesion. Reference: William Schaffer, former Health & Nutrition Educator at Several Colleges and Uniersities

Does combining cocaine with beta blockers prevent the cardiotoxic effects?

Does combining cocaine with beta blockers prevent the cardiotoxic effects?

Quite the contrary. With beta blockade there's a very high and real risk of major unopposed alpha adrenergic effects. We avoid beta blockers like the plague when dealing with cocaine toxicity. Reference: Wilk Dedwylder, MD from University of Mississippi Medical Center(Quora)

What Is diabetic heart disease?

What Is diabetic heart disease?

Coronary heart disease (CHDs), heart death, and diabetic cardiomyopathy may be included in diabetic heart diseases. Diabetes people are likely to have heart attacks silently. This is because diabetes impacts your nerves, which can reduce the feeling and thus prevent you from suffering from heart attack pain and discomfort. Reference: Priya Shetty, Working as Medical Researcher(Quora)

What are chronotropic and inotropic drugs?

What are chronotropic and inotropic drugs?

Chronotropic drugs alter the heart rate and rhythm. Chrono means time. So these drugs can slow down the heart or make it beat faster. Inotropic drugs increase the strength of contractility of heart muscles and increases the tone of blood vessels to increase the blood pressure Reference: Venkatraman Radhakrishnan, Professor Medical and Pediatric Oncology.(Quora)

What are chronotropic and inotropic drugs?

What are chronotropic and inotropic drugs?

Chronotropic drugs alter the heart rate and rhythm. Chrono means time. So these drugs can slow down the heart or make it beat faster. Inotropic drugs increase the strength of contractility of heart muscles and increases the tone of blood vessels to increase the blood pressure Reference: Venkatraman Radhakrishnan, Professor Medical and Pediatric Oncology.(Quora)

What are the chronic diseases linked to dyslipidemia?

What are the chronic diseases linked to dyslipidemia?

Dyslipidemias are chronic conditions characterized by abnormal levels of several lipoproteins, which are the carriers of fats in the blood. They are divided into primary and secondary dyslipidemias, the primary ones been inherited genetics disorders and the secondary ones are associated to other chronic conditions, like Diabetes Mellitus, hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, chronic kidney failure and some other rare endocrine and metabolic disorders. Reference: Abelardo Estopiñan Paneque, Medical Doctor, Marxism-Leninism survivor (Quora)

If decreased salt intake activates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, why does it reduce blood pr

If decreased salt intake activates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, why does it reduce blood pr

Decreased salt ingestion tends to go along with a slight drop of BP (unless the individual is salt sensitive). The reason why a decreased salt ingestion causes just a small rise of BP is indeed the activation of the RAS. If the RAS did not activate(leading to a reduced sodium excretion) a much more pronounced drop of BP would be required to reduce sodium excretion and to achieve sodium balance. Reference: Ico, studied at Medical School (Quora)

What are post angioplasty precaution?

What are post angioplasty precaution?

Coronary Angioplasty is a non-surgical procedure to unblock the coronary arteries that are narrowed by plaque buildup, and restore the blood flow to the heart muscles. Precuations after angioplasty: The patient has to stay atleast for a day in the hospital, during which the heart condition is closely monitored. Complete recovery generally takes about 6 to 8 weeks.Drinking plenty of water to flush out the dye used during the procedure. Avoid extreme physical activity for atleast a few weeks. Taking blood thinning medications, regularly, for life .Maintain healthy weight. Control diabetes and blood pressure. Avoid smoking. Reference : Deepak Kumar, Health Blogger at Health (Quora)

Is it possible to reverse plaque and fat build in your cardiovascular system?

Is it possible to reverse plaque and fat build in your cardiovascular system?

Yes, in some cases. Plaques and cholesterol are signs of damage the body is trying to heal. The underlying damage is frequently caused by inflammation. Eating a very low carb diet with little to no white sugar, flour, starches will help lower inflammation. Eating natural fats, not manmade junk like canola oil, Crisco, corn oil, and other highly processed fats will help lower inflammation, as will taking one low dose aspirin daily. Getting plenty of Vitamin D3, either as sunlight or in high quality supplements if you live far north or south of the equator will help. HIITS ( high intensity interval training sets) will help more than prolonged low intensity “cardio” exercise. All of these put together can lower inflammation and, over time reduce the body’s need for healing plaques and cholesterol buildup.

It’s easiest to start with diet reform. The exercise needs to be started slowly and worked up to, as well as under supervision, to prevent damage to joints and muscles from improper form in the exercises.


Reference:    Martha Kirtley, B. A. Chemistry, Rice University (1974) (Quora)

How does cigarette smoking increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases?

How does cigarette smoking increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases?

The incidence of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and hypertension is higher in smokers than non-smokers. And that's just the tip of the iceberg. Now let's take a look at the cardiovascular risk of smoking.

1.Elevated blood pressure

Cigarette contains a lot of nicotine, these toxic substances will lead to increased secretion of adrenaline and thyroid hormone, can make heart beat faster, blood pressure rise, resulting in adverse consequences.

2.Accelerated atherosclerosis

Smokers because vascular contraction or spasm, blood flow resistance increases, causing damage to the blood vessel wall, the release and platelet aggregation, increased blood viscosity, accelerated heart, brain and kidney and other organs of the whole body atherosclerosis, also can reduce cholesterol, promote thrombosis, increase the risk of coronary artery blockage, will cause coronary artery spasm.

3.Sudden death

Smoking can also cause sudden death, even though some people with mild atherosclerotic symptoms may cause myocardial infarction, or even death, and may increase the risk of peripheral vascular disease and stroke. The main reason for sudden death in smoking patients is that the toxic substances in tobacco cause ventricular fibrillation.

4.Brain damage

Carbon monoxide in cigarettes can cause hypoxia in the walls of blood vessels and lead to hardening of the arteries. Nicotine in cigarettes also reduces HDL and increases LDL cholesterol, thereby exacerbating atherosclerosis. In addition, cerebrovascular sclerosis can damage brain cells, impair memory, and cause mental disorders.

5.Increase the risk of congenital heart disease

Smoking is very bad for pregnant women and fetuses, in addition to causing fetal growth retardation, underweight, but also to make children shorter than their peers, the physique will be relatively poor. In addition, the incidence of congenital heart disease was significantly higher in infants than in non-smoking women, 2~3 times.


Reference: Renjie Song, studied at Wuhan Textile University (2019) (Quora)

Can diabetes increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases?

Can diabetes increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases?

High blood glucose causes damage to blood vessels, for reasons that researchers are working hard to determine. One theory suggests that it changes the behavior of certain proteins, causing blood vessels to contract excessively (High Blood-Sugar Levels Seen to Affect How Blood Vessels Contract - Diabetes News Journal). Another theory is that it suppresses certain enzymes related to the integrity of blood vessels walls (Root cause of blood vessel damage in diabetes discovered). Yet another theory involves a different enzyme that promotes the activity of a substance that damages proteins in the blood, leading to harmful inflammation (Study sheds light on blood vessel damage from high glucose concentrations).

In short, high blood glucose is really bad for the biochemistry that keeps our blood vessels functioning well.

When blood vessels are compromised, blood flow through the body is compromised. Most complications of diabetes are related to this compromised blood flow.

In cardiovascular disease, the coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked by the build-up of plaque on the artery walls. The tendency of diabetics in particular to develop this plaque is probably a result of the blood vessel walls being compromised by the biochemical damage caused by high blood glucose.

The best way for diabetics to decrease their risk of cardiovascular disease is to keep their blood sugar under control.


ReferenceCelia May Malm, Type 1 Diabetes since 1985. Insulin Pump since 1992(Quora).

Who should take statins for the prevention of heart disease?

Who should take statins for the prevention of heart disease?

Statins are overprescribed. There can be serious side-effects from statins (see below), so they should not be prescribed without a good indication.Those who have established heart disease or who had a heart attack in the past should probably be prescribed statins. The majority of people should seriously work on lifestyle changes (cutting out sugar, exercising regularly etc.). This will reduce their cholesterol level.


Reference:Ray Schilling, Cancer res. 3 yr.General practice16yrs. Medical Advisor WCB.(Quora)

Should one take hypertension medicine even though the pressure has turned normal?

Should one take hypertension medicine even though the pressure has turned normal?

No. Blood pressure drugs are not a cure. They lower blood pressure by antagonizing the rise in blood pressure, but do not change the underlying pathology behind high blood pressure.

Arteriosclerosis, plaque in the arteries, whose deposition increases with age, is associated with high blood pressure. Although its build-up can be slowed down by adopting a healthful lifestyle, once established, little can be done to clear the plaque.

Plaque reduces compliance of the arteries, which compliance is a physiological mechanism used by the body to regulate blood pressure. Besides, blood pressure regulation has a timeline above which the neuronal feedback from blood to the brain to make these adjustments is lost.

Tissue perfusion or blood flow is the prime goal of the pumping heart. Once compliance is lost through arteriosclerosis, the heart attempts to pump much harder to achieve its goal. However, met with obstruction, from stiff and narrowed blood vessels, less blood leaves the heart and the stroke volume falls, as the heart rate and total peripheral resistance rise. Tissue perfusion falls even much lower. Blood pressure is thus reset at a higher level in this failed attempt to increase cardiac output or flow.

High blood pressure drugs pharmacologically dilate the stiff blood arteries and/or slow the heart and/or reduce blood volume to increase arterial compliance, blood flow and tissue perfusion.

If you stop taking the drug(s) that had lowered your blood pressure, and with this pathology still in place, blood pressure rises back up again. And sometimes to a much higher value.

That said for essential hypertenstion, high blood pressure due to a known, correctable, cause like kidney failure, can go away once the underlying kidney dysfunction has been corrected, but stopping treatment without the correction will not help.

Lifestyle changes like exercise, low salt intake and weight loss may lower blood pressure by reducing the burden on blood vessels and the heart and this will reduce the need for drugs in borderline hypertension cases.


Reference: Oliver Birnso, Treated hypertensive patients(Quora)

What is the current of an injury in heart physiology?

What is the current of an injury in heart physiology?

In a normal heart muscle cell between beats the membrane is fully polarised i.e. the inside is 70mV negative compared with the outside (due to positive potassium ions drifting out and positive sodium ions not being able to flow in because the sodium channels are blocked. The cell is activated by the sodium channels opening temporarily at one point and the resulting electric current triggers the opening of the sodium channels in the neighboring membrane so that the activation spreads.

If part of the cell is injured, the sodium channels partially open and this allows a current to flow when the cell is polarised but not when it is depolarised. This causes a baseline shift in the ECG except during depolarisation, giving the appearance of ST shift.



Reference:Jonathan Pitts Crick, studied Medicine and Healthcare at King's College London (1969)(Quora)

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